BIODIESEL -- FAQ

An efficient, clean, 100% natural energy alternative to petroleum fuels. Among the many advantages of biodiesel fuel: 

Safe for use in all conventional diesel engines 
Offers the same performance and engine durability as petroleum diesel fuel 
Non-flammable and non-toxic 
Reduces tailpipe emissions, visible smoke and noxious fumes and odors 
Produced in Hawaii from 100% recycled vegetable oil 

Diesel Fuel
If you have ever compared Diesel fuel and gasoline, you know that they are different. They certainly smell different. Diesel fuel is heavier and oilier. Diesel fuel evaporates much more slowly than gasoline - its boiling point is actually higher than the boiling point of water. You will often hear Diesel fuel referred to as Diesel oil because it is so oily. 

Horsepower
For a very interesting and complete explanation of what horsepower is and what horsepower means, please see How Horsepower Works! 
Diesel fuel evaporates more slowly because it is heavier. It contains more carbon atoms in longer chains than gasoline does (gasoline is typically C9H20 while Diesel fuel is typically C14H30). It takes less refining to create Diesel fuel, which is why it is generally cheaper than gasoline. 

Diesel fuel has a higher energy density than gasoline. On average, a gallon of Diesel fuel contains approximately 155x106joules (147,000 BTUs), while a gallon of gasoline contains 132x106joules (125,000 BTUs). This, combined with the improved efficiency of Diesel engines, explains why Diesel engines get better mileage than equivalent gasoline engines. 

WHY BIODIESEL? 

The Advantages of Biodiesel
Pure biodiesel is biodegradable, nontoxic and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. It is a renewable resource, based on soybean and other oil crops that are grown anew each year. It is produced domestically, reducing this country's dependence on foreign oil. It requires no engine modifications or changes in the fuel handling and delivery systems. Some vehicle hoses may need to be changed. Biodiesel delivers similar torque, horsepower and miles per gallon. 

Safer and Cleaner Fuel
Biodiesel offers fleet operators a safer, cleaner alternative to petroleum diesel. Biodiesel is made from renewable fats and oils, such as vegetable oils, through a simple refining process. Pacific Biodiesel produces biodiesel from used restaurant fryer oil. One of the main components for fryer oil are soybeans, a major crop produced by almost 400,000 farmers in 29 states. 
Biodiesel is recognized as an alternative fuel. In its neat form and in blends of 20% or more with petroleum diesel, the US Department of Energy has acknowledged biodiesel as an alternative fuel. Biodiesel can be used for vehicle credits under the Energy Policy Act. 
Biodiesel operates in conventional combustion-ignition engines, from light to heavy-duty, just like petroleum diesel. No engine modifications are required, and biodiesel maintains the payload capacity and range of diesel. Since engine modifications are not required, there's no need to change vehicles, spare parts inventories, refueling stations or specially skilled mechanics. Vehicle hoses need to be checked after the first 6 months of operation on biodiesel. Replacement of non-compatible hoses may be necessary, but is not usually difficult or expensive. Blends of 20% or less tend to have little effect on even non-compatible hoses. 
Biodiesel cuts down on targeted emissions. Biodiesel used in a 20 percent blend with petroleum diesel and a catalytic converter will cut air pollution. Particulate matter is reduced 31 percent, carbon monoxide by 21 percent and total hydrocarbons by 47 percent. Biodiesel used in a blend will also reduce sulfur emissions and aromatics. Using 100% biodiesel further reduces emissions and carcinogenic compounds. 

Practical Alternative for Marine Market
Biodiesel use in the marine market can be practical and safe. In its pure form, biodiesel is less harsh on marine environments and easier for boaters to handle and store. The marine industry consumes about 10 percent of the petroleum diesel in the U.S. 
Biodiesel can work in several marine factions. Because biodiesel can replace or blend with petroleum diesel without engine modifications, it is a viable alternative to several categories of the marine industry, including: recreational boats, inland commercial and ocean-going commercial ships, research vessels and the U.S. Coast Guard Fleet. Today, much of the emphasis is on recreational boats, which consume about 95 million gallons of diesel fuel annually. 
Biodiesel is a safe alternative fuel. Biodiesel has a higher flash point than regular diesel. It is classified as non-flammable by the NFPA, and is not required to carry a Hazardous Material label when being shipped. 
Biodiesel is easier on engines. Biodiesel blended as low as a 2% rate with low sulfer or ultra-low sulfer petroleum diesel increases lubricity to traditional high sulfur diesel fuel levels. Field tests indicate that engine life is increased with biodiesel usage. 
Biodiesel is "user-friendly." The use of biodiesel and biodiesel blends results in a noticeable change in exhaust odor. The reduction in smell and change of odor are easier on ship workers and pleasure craft boaters. In fact, it's been compared to the smell of French fries. Users also report no eye irritation. Since biodiesel is oxygenated, diesel engines have more complete combustion than when using petroleum fuel. 

Biodiesel Can Help Boaters Meet Regulations

Emissions:The Clean Air Act allows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess the contribution of non-road emissions to air pollution. EPA proposes to include marine diesel compression-ignition engines in the same regulatory framework as land-based, non-road compression-ignition engines. 

Regulatory Liability: The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 increases the civil and criminal penalties for causing spills and for violating marine safety and environmental protection laws. The law applies to all vessels, and fines up to $10,000 per day can be levied against serious offenders. 

Clean Water Act: The Clean Water Act requires states to establish standards for pollutants like grease and oil, in an effort to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological condition of U.S. waters. 

The Role of Biodiesel
The goal of the biodiesel industry is not to replace petroleum diesel, but to extend its usefulness. Biodiesel is one of several alternative fuels that have a place in the development of a balanced energy policy. The role of biodiesel is to contribute to the longevity and cleanliness of diesel engines. The most likely use of biodiesel will be in certain niche markets that require a cleaner-burning, biodegradable fuel. 

Biodiesel is a completely natural, renewable fuel applicable in most any situation where conventional petroleum diesel is used. Even though "diesel" is part of its name, there are no petroleum or other fossil fuels in biodiesel. Biodiesel is 100% vegetable oil based. 

Currently biodiesel is produced mainly from field crop oils throughout Europe and used widely in a range of diesel vehicles not easily found in the U.S. The fuel produced in Hawaii by Pacific Biodiesel, Inc. is made totally from recycled cooking oil and used mostly in generators of all sizes, commercial diesel equipment, vehicles, and marine vessels. Since the opening of the Maui processing plant, it has become more economical for pump trucks to deliver used restaurant oil to Pacific Biodiesel than to landfill it, resulting in a landfill diversion total of over 40 tons of used cooking oil per month.

In the past decade, biodiesel has been gaining worldwide popularity as an alternative energy source because of its many benefits. Besides the huge landfill reduction benefits, this environment-friendly fuel reduces tailpipe emissions, visible smoke and noxious odors. It operates well in a conventional diesel engine with very few or no engine modifications, and can also be used in a blend with conventional diesel while still achieving substantial reductions in emissions. Because biodiesel is non-toxic, biodegradable and non-flammable, handling and storage are safer than conventional petroleum diesel fuel. And, the cost compares well when pricing against other alternative fuels.

Technically, biodiesel is Vegetable Oil Methyl Ester. It is formed be removing the triglyceride molecule from vegetable oil in the form of glycerin (soap). Once the glycerin is removed from the oil, the remaining molecules are, to a diesel engine, similar to petroleum diesel fuel. There are some notable differences. The biodiesel molecules are very simple hydrocarbon chains, containing no sulfur, ring molecules or aromatics associated with fossil fuels. Biodiesel is made up of almost 10% oxygen, making it a naturally "oxygenated" fuel. 

FACT's

Power 

One of the major advantages is the fact that it can be used in existing engines and fuel injection equipment (no modification required) without negative impacts to operating performance. 
Fuel availability/economy 

Virtually the same MPG rating as petrodiesel and the only alternative fuel for heavyweight vehicles requiring no special dispensing and storage equipment. 
Storage 

Readily blends and stays blended with petrodiesel so it can be stored and dispensed wherever diesel is stored or sold. 
Combustibility/Safety 

Biodiesel has a very high flash point (300F) making it one of the safest of all alternative fuels. 
Production/Refining 

The only alternative fuel that can boast of a zero total emissions production facility 
Lubricity 

The only alternative fuel that can actually extend engine life because of its superior lubricating properties. 
Environmental Impact 

The only renewable alternative diesel fuel that actually reduces a major greenhouse gas components in the atmosphere . The use of biodiesel will also reduce the following emissions:
carbon monoxide 
ozone-forming-hydrocarbons 
hazardous diesel particulate 
acid rain-causing sulfur dioxide 
lifecycle carbon dioxide . 


OIL PRODUCING PLANTS

Corn

Cashew

Oat

Palm

Lupine

Rubber seed

Kenaf

Calendula

Cotton

Hemp

Soybean

Rapeseed

Olive tree

Castor bean

Jojoba

Pecan

Oil Palm
Coffee

Linseed

Hazelnut

Euphorbia

Pumpkin seed

Sesame 

Safflower

Rice

Sunflower

Peanut

Tung oil tree

Jatropha

Macadamia nut

Brazil nut

Avocado

Coconut

Macuba palm